June 1, 1994
0. Preface This is the introduction of Canna. For installation of Canna or changes from previous versions, see the file INSTALL or INSTALL.jp or CHANGES.jp respectively. (Sorry, but INSTALL and README may not be updated to Japanese. And CHANGES isn't in English.) 1. Overview This directory includes files which are sources for a Japanese input system named Canna. Canna provides a unified user interface for Japanese input. *Note: Canna was called Iroha among developers of Canna previously. There exists a commonly usable Japanese input system called Wnn. Canna gives an alternative Japanese input system. Canna is based on a client-server model for kana-to-kanji conversion, that is, an application program which uses a Japanese input system communicates with a kana-to-kanji conversion server, which is a separate process from the application program. Canna has several features as follows: 1) Based on client-server model kana-to-kanji conversion 2) Supporting automatically kana-to-kanji conversion 3) Providing a unified user interface to input Japanese 4) Supporting customization by users 5) Based on lisp language customization 6) A mechanism to add a suitable part of speech to each registered words by users 7) Providing a library which supports a unified user interface 8) Maintenance tools for conversion dictionaries 9) A customizing tool which supports easy customization 10) Supporting Nemacs(Mule), kinput2 and uum Below, I would like to describe details of Canna's features. 2. Features of Canna 2.1 Based on client-server model kana-to-kanji conversion Canna converts kana to kanji based on a client-server model. That is, an application program communicates with a kana-to-kanji conversion server and achieves Japanese input. 2.2 Supporting automatically kana-to-kanji conversion Canna is the first Japanese input system which supports automatically kana-to-kanji conversion, it is also a free software for Japanese input which based on client-server model. Generally, it is not easy to input Japanese with kana-to-kanji conversion automatically in PC environment. However, Canna makes it easier for supporting better user interface which extended their generally(unautomatically) conversion. 2.3 Providing a unified user interface to input Japanese Developers of Canna, including myself, used to use Egg on Nemacs when we had to input Japanese. Egg was very harmonious with Nemacs and its user interface was convenient. *Note: Nemacs is a Japanese version of Emacs. Egg is an interface between Nemacs and Wnn. Egg provides a user interface by itself. On the other hand, if we had to input Japanese without Nemacs, for example, to input Japanese in command line of shell, we were not able to use Egg because Egg was usable only in Emacs environment. Though there is also a Japanese input system for TTYs called Uum, Uum has a different user interface from Egg and we did not become accustomed with it. Especially in using X clients, we were eager to use Egg's user interface to use them. We found a lot of good tools on the X window system such as xmh and xcalendar. Our desire was to localize those clients into our national language and to operate them with Egg's user interface. <<Let's create another Egg by ourselves>> Thus, we decided to create an Egg like system and to provide it in a library. This is the Canna. Now, Canna provides more features than Egg. Canna can be used in Emacs, in X environments, and on TTYs. 2.4 Supporting customization by users As well as key binding, it is possible to customize romaji-to-kana conversion rules, status describing strings, dictionaries, etc. A customization is described in a customization file. A customization file can be shared among applications using Canna. 2.5 Based on lisp language customization Because of new syntax, old application programs will have to be re-written to incorporate the new rules and conditions of Canna. According to use new customization syntax based on lisp language, it is possible to ignore the descriptions which old version's Canna cannot understand. With new syntax, you can show version of Canna or connected server, and customize on conditions of these versions. 2.6 A mechanism to add a suitable part of speech to each registered words by users When we made our own user interface, we added one new idea into the word registration part of Canna. In kana-to-kanji conversion system, more detailed parts of speech are used than what are used in school grammars. Canna uses almost 400 parts of speech. On the other hand, it might be almost impossible and unkind to ask users what kind of a part of speech must be used for the registered word. In Canna, we made a new mechanism to add a suitable part of speech to registered words. Canna shows several sentences using newly registered word, and ask user the usage is correct or not. Asking several questions to user helps Canna to decide what part of speech is suitable for the newly registered word. 2.7 Providing a library which supports a unified user interface A user-interface library is provided. With this library, programmers can easily add a Japanese input system with unified user interface to application programs. This library has higher-level functions than Wnn's high-level library has, and interpretation of each input key is also processed inside of this library. An interface to this library is simple. Giving input key to this library returns several pieces of information to display pre-edit status. Interpretations of key functions are hidden inside of this library, and it is not necessary for application programs to be conscious of them. This library meets the case of treating inputs from several windows. By giving context identifiers which correspond to each window with key inputs to this library makes it possible to process plural kana-to-kanji conversion concurrently in a process. 2.8 Maintenance tools for conversion dictionaries Canna provides more than ten tools to maintenance kana-to-kanji conversion dictionaries. Using these tools, you can do the following things. - Conversion between text format dictionaries and binary format ones. - Creating, deleting, listing, renaming dictionaries by remote operation - Uploading and downloading dictionaries - Adding/deleting items to/from a dictionary by a batch procedure 2.9 A customizing tool which supports easy customization In place of editing a customization file directly, it is possible to set up customization by using a customizing tool. 2.10 Supporting Nemacs(Mule), kinput2 and uum Canna provides a patch for Nemacs(Mule), which makes Nemacs(Mule) possible to input Japanese in Canna's unified user interface. And, after Mule 0.9.5, the distribution of Mule includes interface to Canna. If kinput2 use Canna as kana-to-kanji conversion engine, application programs which use kinput can use Canna's unified user interface to input Japanese Additionally, Canna supports a patch for uum, which makes possible to input Japanese in Canna on TTYs. For uum, see canuum/README.jp. (Sorry, but canuum/README.jp is in Japanese.) 3. Contents of Canna Canna contains the following things. - Kana-to-kanji conversion server (cannaserver) - User interface library (libcanna.a, libcanna.so.1) - Remote version of dictionary accessing library (libRKC.a) - Local version of dictionary accessing library (libRK.a) - Wnn version of dictionary accessing library (RKwnn.o) - Maintenance tools for conversion dictionaries - Patch files for uum of Canna version - A sample program 4. Documents Under this directory, there are several documents. Most of them are in Japanese. 1) Document of Canna (in Japanese) The document is in jlatex format and is in doc/man/guide. This document describes the general comments of how to use Canna. 2) Documents for commands The documents are in man macro format of roff and are in the respective directory. Source codes are also available in same directory. Japanese documents have suffix .jmn, and English have .man. 3) Documents for application interface library The documents are in man macro format of roff and are in lib/canna and lib/RK. 4) Document for kana-to-kanji conversion protocol (in Japanese) The document is in jlatex format and is in doc/intern. Canna has the protocol versions 1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0 and 3.2. The document of the protocol version 1.0 and 1.1 is the file proto12.tex. Other version's document is protocol.tex. 5) Document for lisp language of customization file (in Japanese) The document is in jlatex format and is in doc/lisp as canlisp.tex. 6) Document for uum of Canna version The notes is in text file format and is in canuum as README.jp. 7) Other Documents The documents are in jlatex format and are in doc/misc. 5. Bugs Canna have some bugs as follows: (1) Canuum doesn't run on Solaris 2.1. (2) Canuum doesn't run on SunOS 4.2 with compiler gcc. (3) On SONY NEWS, the terminal mode on pseudo tty is different which make by canuum. (4) No English documents as follows: canuum/canuum.man (5) When use automatically kana-to-kanji conversion, you may not convert correctly. (6) On Solaris 2.3, you will have some cores. (7) When you compile, you will have a warning message "Undefined row vectors: BM". Don't worry it. 6. Acknowledgements Canna have been released as a Alpha Release on January 1994, and as a Beta Release on March. Many people have cooperated and worked to make this release in canna mailing list since Alpha Release. They had reported the compilation in respective version, the problems to compile, and the bugs which is not easy to find out and they had suggested their idea to correct as patch. Our thanks go out to the following people. Shin Yoshimura (IIJ), Tomotake Furuhata (IBM), Nobuhiro Yasutomi (ISAC), Takanori Nishijima (Canon), Yoshinari Inoue (Kyoto University), Yuuji Hirose (Keio University), Tetsuaki Kiriyama (SONY), Fumitaka Murayama (Chubu University), Tetsuji Takada (The University of Electro-Communications), Takashi Taniguchi (The University of Electro-Communications), Akihisa Tsuboi (The University of Electro-Communications), Fumihiro Ueno (The University of Tokyo), Yasuharu Sasaki (The University of Tokyo), Yoshinari Kanaya (Tohoku University), Takeshi Hagiwara (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Yukinobu Moriya (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Takuya Harakawa (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Yasuhiro Matsuoka (Nagoya Institute of Technology), Yoshinori Sakamoto (Nara Institute of Science and Technology), Kenjirou Tsuji (Nihon SunSoft), Masayuki Koba (Hitachi Software Engineering Co., Ltd.), Toshihiko Kodama (Fujitsu), Noriaki Seki (Fuji Xerox Co.,Ltd.), Kenji Rikitake (TDI Kyoto Network Technology Laboratory), Atsushi Nakamura (Matsushita Research Institute Tokyo, Inc.), Kenichi Tanino (Musashi Institute of Technology), Masakazu Kano (Musashi Institute of Technology), Noriyoshi Kumazawa (Meiji University), Yoshikazu Tabata (Yokogawa Digital Computer Corporation), Hiroki Kanou (Waseda University), Masaki Takayama (NEC Software, Ltd.), Ryuichi Matsumoto (NEC Scientific Information System Development, Ltd.), Masao Negishi (DNP), Junji Sakai (NEC). Hajime Oiwa (Keio Univ.) agreed to support TUT code as a function of Canna. Thank you very much. The function to input TUT code have supported since Canna Version 2.2 patch level 2. Tomotake Furuhata (The Univ. of Tokyo) pointed out bugs in Imakefile on Canna Version 1.2 and sent the patch to correct (Canna have a large number of Imakefile). Imakefiles after Canna Version 2.2 based on his patch. Thank you very much. Yasuhiro Masutani (Osaka Univ.) and Masaki Takayama (NEC Software, Ltd.) maintenanced the documents. There is a problem that the installed directories do not agree with the description in documents, since the directories of Canna are changeable according to the environments of installation. They cleared the problem. Thank you very much. Takashi Matsuzawa made the part of engine switcher on HP-UX. He gave them the advice. Thank you very much. Isao Seki (PRUG), Yuuji Hirose (Keio Univ.) and Yasuhiro Matsuoka (Nagoya Institute of Technology) pointed out bugs on NEmacs or Mule with Canna, and sent the patch to correct them. Thank you very much. NEmacs and Mule aren't included in this release, but we will improve them. Yoshinori Sakamoto (Nara Institute of Science and Technology), Makoto Ishisone (SRA), Hisashi Minamino (SRA), Yoshinari Kanaya (Tohoku Univ), Junn Ohta (RICOH), Yoshitaka Tokugawa (DIT) and Takahiro Kanbe (FXIS) gave advice about the separation of cannaserver from TTY and the portable program of variable argument. Thank you very much. We debugged the problem on DEC Alpha, 64 bit workstation of Digital Equipment Co., at Alpha resource center in Digital Equipment Corporation Japan. We thank Hiroaki Obata, Tsutomu Okihara and Satoshi Watanabe for their efforts. Masato Minda (ASTEC) set up and manage "Canna" mailing list. Therefore, we get many useful information such as above. We thank him for his efforts. Kazuhiro Fujieda (Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Hokuriku), Hiroki Kanou (Waseda Univ.), Masaki Takayama (NEC Software, Ltd.) and Hiroshi Yamada (NEC Corporation) gave the suggestions about certain part of speech and conjunction of words. Especially, Mr. Fujieda put the symbols which show the end of sentence in the kana-to-kanji conversion logic of Canna. Thank you very much.
/* Copyright 1994 NEC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. * * Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute and sell this software * and its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without * fee, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies * and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice * appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of NEC * Corporation not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to * distribution of the software without specific, written prior * permission. NEC Corporation makes no representations about the * suitability of this software for any purpose. It is provided "as * is" without express or implied warranty. * * NEC CORPORATION DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, * INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN * NO EVENT SHALL NEC CORPORATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR * CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF * USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR * OTHER TORTUOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR * PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. */ ($Id: README,v 2.15 1994/07/26 00:31:08 misao Exp $)