* @(#)READ_ME 8.10 (Berkeley) 4/13/94
SENDMAIL RELEASE 8
This directory has the latest sendmail software from Berkeley. See
doc/op/op.me for a summary of changes since 5.67.
Report any bugs to sendmail@CS.Berkeley.EDU.
The latest version of sendmail is kept on FTP.CS.Berkeley.EDU, directory
/ucb/sendmail; check there for the latest revision.
Host Name Services
USE WITH MH
- MANUAL PAGES
- The sendmail manual pages use contemporary Berkeley troff macros. If
your system does not process these manual pages, you can pick up the
new macros in a BSD Net/2 FTP site (e.g. on FTP.UU.NET, the files
The strip.sed file is only used in installation.
After installation, edit tmac.doc and tmac.andoc to reflect the
installation path of the tmac files. Those files contain pointers to
/usr/share/tmac/, and those pointers are not changed by the `make
Rename the existing tmac.an to be tmac.an.old, and rename tmac.andoc
to be tmac.an.
tmac.an will choose between tmac.an.old, your old macros, or tmac.doc,
which are the new macros, so that both the new man pages and the
existing man pages will be translated properly.
I'm also told that the groff distribution from MIT has a tmac.doc
macro set that is compatible with these macros.
- RELATED DOCUMENTATION
There are other files you should read. Rooted in this directory are:
Describes changes between Release 5 and Release 8 of sendmail.
There are some things that may behave somewhat differently.
For example, the rules governing when :include: files will
be read have been tightened up for security reasons.
- Answers to Frequently Asked Questions.
- Known bugs in the current release. I try to keep this up
to date -- get the latest version from FTP.CS.Berkeley.EDU
- A detailed description of the changes in each version. This
is quite long, but informative.
Details on compiling and installing sendmail.
- Details on configuring sendmail.
- The sendmail Installation & Operations Guide. Be warned: if
you are running this off on SunOS or some other system with an
old version of -me, you need to add the following macro to the
This sets a word in a smaller pointsize.
- RELATED RFCS
There are several related RFCs that you may wish to read -- they are
available via anonymous FTP to several sites, including nic.ddn.mil
(directory rfc), ftp.nisc.sri.com (rfc), nis.nsf.net (RFC),
nisc.jvnc.net (rfc), venera.isi.edu (in-notes), and wuarchive.wustl.edu
(info/rfc). They can also be retrieved via electronic mail by sending
email to one of:
Put "send rfcNNN" in message body
Put "send RFCnnn.TXT-1" in message body
Put "RFCnnn" as Subject: line
Important RFCs for electronic mail are:
RFC821 SMTP protocol
RFC822 Mail header format
RFC974 MX routing
RFC976 UUCP mail format
RFC1123 Host requirements (modifies 821, 822, and 974)
RFC1413 Identification server
RFC1341 MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
RFC1344 Implications of MIME for Internet Mail Gateways
Other standards that may be of interest (but which are less directly
relevant to sendmail) are:
RFC987 Mapping between RFC822 and X.400
RFC1049 Content-Type header field (extension to RFC822)
Warning to AIX users: this version of sendmail does not implement
MB, MR, or MG DNS resource records, as defined as experiments in
- DATABASE ROUTINES
- IF YOU WANT TO RUN THE NEW BERKELEY DB SOFTWARE: **** DO NOT ****
use the version that was on the Net2 tape -- it has a number of
nefarious bugs that were bad enough when I got them; you shouldn't have
to go through the same thing. Instead, get a new version via public
FTP from ftp.CS.Berkeley.EDU, file ucb/4bsd/db.tar.Z. This software
is highly recommended; it gets rid of several stupid limits, it's much
faster, and the interface is nicer to animals and plants. You will
also probably find that you have to add -I/where/you/put/db/include
to the sendmail makefile to get db.h to work properly.
Be sure you remove ndbm.h and ndbm.o from the db distribution. These
will cause problems with sendmail because sendmail already understands
about NEWDB and NDBM coexisting.
- Host Name Services
If you compile with NAMED_BIND (the default) sendmail will use
DNS (the Domain Name System) for most host name lookups. If
you do not have DNS running at your site you may have to turn
this off to cause sendmail to use NIS and/or the /etc/hosts file.
In particular, on SunOS you have to choose to use DNS (which
you should do if you are attached to the Internet, otherwise
you lose MX records, which are required) or NIS -- there is no
way to try both.
If you are using NIS and /etc/hosts, it is critical that you
list the long (fully qualified) name first in the /etc/hosts file
used to build the NIS database. For example, the line should read
126.96.36.199 mastodon.CS.Berkeley.EDU mastodon
**** NOT ****
188.8.131.52 mastodon mastodon.CS.Berkeley.EDU
If you use the wrong order, sendmail will conclude that your
canonical name is the short version and use that in messages.
The name "mastodon" doesn't mean much outside of Berkeley,
and so this creates incorrect and unreplyable messages.
- USE WITH MH
- This version of sendmail notices and reports certain kinds of SMTP
protocol violations that were ignored by older versions. If you
are running MH you may wish to install the patch in contrib/mh.patch
that will prevent these warning reports. This patch also works
with the old version of sendmail, so it's safe to go ahead and
- The Makefiles in this release use the new Berkeley "make" that is
available in BSD Net/2 and 4.4BSD. If you are using this version
of make, you may notice one or two places where the Makefile includes
"../../Makefile.inc". This file is not included with the sendmail
distribution because it's not part of sendmail. However, it is,
# @(#)Makefile.inc 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/6/93
The other directories should all have Makefile.dist files that work
on the old make, albeit without all the niceties included.
You can also get a new Berkeley make from the Net2 release (available
on many public FTP archives). This version should also interpret old
Makefiles, so you could drop it in as your default make.
For more details, see src/READ_ME.
- DIRECTORY STRUCTURE
The structure of this directory tree is:
- Source for Berkeley configuration files. These are
different than what you've seen before. They are a
fairly dramatic rewrite, requiring the new sendmail
(since they use new features).
- Some contributed tools to help with sendmail. THESE
ARE NOT SUPPORTED by Berkeley -- contact the original
authors if you have problems. (This directory is not
on the 4.4BSD tape.)
- Documentation. If you are getting source, read
op.me -- it's long, but worth it.
- Statistics printing program. It has the pathname of
sendmail.st compiled in, so if you've changed that,
beware. This isn't all that useful.
- A program that creates the keyed maps used by the $( ... $)
construct in sendmail. It is primitive but effective.
It takes a very simple input format, so you will probably
expect to preprocess must human-convenient formats
using sed scripts before this program will like them.
But it should be functionally complete.
- A program to print the DBM version of the aliases file.
It hasn't been converted to understand the new Berkeley
DB format (which we are using).
- Source for rmail(8). This is used as a delivery
agent for for UUCP, and could presumably be used by
other non-socket oriented mailers. Older versions of
rmail are probably deficient.
- Source for the sendmail program itself.
- Some test scripts (currently only for compilation aids).