1. edit src/pathnames.h to conform to your needs.
    _PATH_FTPUSERS "/etc/ftpusers"
    The file that lists users that can never ftp in. Usually contains root and all usernames not connected to a real person (eg. bin, sync, nobody, etc.)
    _PATH_FTPACCESS "/usr/local/etc/ftpaccess"
    The configuration file for the server.
    _PATH_FTPHOSTS "/etc/ftphosts"
    The individual user access configuration file.
    ** _PATH_EXECPATH "/bin/ftp-exec"
    The directory that contains additional binaries for use with the SITE EXEC command.
    _PATH_PIDNAMES "/usr/local/daemon/ftpd/ftp.pids-%s"
    The filename template for pid files. The %s gets automagically replaced by the proper classname. There will be as many pid files as there are classes in your ftpaccess.
    _PATH_CVT "/usr/local/etc/ftpconversions"
    The file that contains the conversion (file -> file.Z, etc) configuration. See ftpconversions.5 for a description of the format.
    _PATH_XFERLOG "/usr/adm/xferlog"
    The file where all logging information is placed.
    _PATH_PRIVATE "/etc/ftpgroups"
    The group password file for use with the SITE GROUP and SITE GPASS commands. See ftpaccess.5 for a description of the format.
    _PATH_UTMP "/etc/utmp"
    Where your utmp file lives.
    _PATH_WTMP "/usr/adm/wtmp"
    Where your wtmp file lives.
    _PATH_LASTLOG "/usr/adm/lastlog"
    Where your lastlog file lives.
    _PATH_BSHELL "/bin/sh"
    Where bourne shell lives
    _PATH_DEVNULL "/dev/null"
    What /dev/null is. I can't imagine that this could ever be different.
    ** This path is relative to ~ftp. To add the same functionality for real users, create a symbolic link from ~ftp/_PATH_EXEC to /_PATH_EXEC.

  2. 2a. build xxx
    where xxx is one of:
    gen : generic make (copy this when porting to a new system)
    aix : IBM AIX
    bsd : BSDI bsd/386
    dgx : Data General Unix
    dyn : Dynix
    hpx : HP-UX
    isc : ISC
    lnx : Linux (tested on 0.99p8)
    nx2 : NeXTstep 2.x
    nx3 : NeXTstep 3.x
    osf : OSF/1
    ptx : ???
    sgi : SGI Irix 4.0.5a
    sny : Sony NewsOS
    sol : SunOS 5.x / Solaris 2.x
    s41 : SunOS 4.1.x (requires acc or gcc 2.3.3 or better)
           (if you must use gcc 1.4.2, mail me for a patch)
    ult : Ultrix 4.x
    If cc complains about strunames, typenames, modenames, ... being undefined you need to install support/ftp.h as /usr/include/arpa/ftp.h (always make a backup of the old ftp.h just in case!) and do the build again. The new ftp.h should be a compatible superset of your existing ftp.h, so you shouldn't have problems with this replacement.

    If you are using gcc... Make sure that you the include files have been properly "fixed" according to the gcc 2.3.3 INSTALL instructions. If the server crashes before printing the banner message (during a vprintf) this is most probably the cause.

    Some machines may not have a definition of pid_t; so if your compiler complains about this you should add to src/config.h

      typedef int pid_t;

    2b. If your system is not defined above...

    Edit the three files appropriately. Go back to step 2a.

  3. build install

  4. edit /etc/inetd.conf to point to the new ftpd

  5. on BSD-ish systems: kill -1 `ps t"?" | grep inetd`
    on SGI systems: /etc/killall -HUP inetd

  6. for the server to support creation of .tar.Z files of directories, you need GNU tar installed [remember to put a copy in the anonymous ftp hierarchy]. If you need a copy, it is available from [] in /gnu.

  7. copy /wherever/compress to ~ftp/bin/compress.

  8. copy the ftpconversions, ftpusers, and ftpgroups files to the locations specifed in pathnames.h. There are examples of these files in the doc/examples directory.

  9. create the directory for the SITE EXEC programs, as specified in pathnames.h. Put any executables that you want anonymous users to be able to run in this directory. Be careful what you put here.

  10. run bin/ckconfig to make sure that all the support files are properly installed.


  1. You need to have at least *one* class defined in the ftpaccess file. In the next release, this will change.

  2. The ftpd(8) man page that came with your Operating System should do a good job of explaining how to set up the anonymous ftp hierarchy. At the very least, you will need ~ftp/bin (mode: 111 ---x--x--x) with a copy of "ls" (mode: 111 ---x--x--x) and ~ftp/etc (mode: 111 ---x--x--x) with an /etc/passwd.

  3. Don't put encrypted passwords in ~ftp/etc/passwd. In fact, all you really need is entries for root and ftp. "ls" is the only part of the server that uses this file.

  4. Anonymous FTP may have some troubles on machines which use dynamic shared libraries. The most common of these is SunOS 4.1.x. You will have trouble with using the binaries in ~ftp/bin if those binaries were compiled using those shared libraries, as the chroot() that ftpd does for anonymous users to ~ftp means that those links to the static libraries are lost. You cannot make a hard link or soft link to the libraries as the chroot will make those links meaningless. There are two ways to fix this:

    1. Track down, using ldd, all the shared libs used by each binary you want to put in ~ftp/bin. Then copy these into their corresponding places in ~ftp: i.e., /usr/lib/ must be copied into ~ftp/usr/lib/ However, ldd does not always show all the files that a compiled program may try to reference; if you use trace you can see every system call a binary makes, and that should show you every dependency. If you compiled with gcc, there are likely to be lots of references made.

    2. Recompile any binary you wish to put in ~ftp/bin (ls, gzip, gtar, etc) using the -Bstatic (or -static in gcc) option in the CFLAGS *and* LDFLAGS options in their respective makefiles. You can get GNU versions of ls and gzip and everything else from This is the easiest and most foolproof method - the statically compiled binaries may be a tad bigger, but you can use strip to pare down the size.

      [thanks to Brian Behlendorf for rewriting #4 more elegantly.]

  5. Make sure that you have a /etc/shells that lists all valid shells on your system. Otherwise, those who have shells not listed there will not be able to log in. [Yes, this is the expected behaivor.]

    Under Solaris 2.1, there is no /etc/shells by default.

  6. Under Solaris 2.1, you need to have the following in ~ftp/dev
    crw-rw-rw- 1 root 11, 42 Mar 24 17:00 tcp
    cr--r--r-- 1 root 13, 12 Mar 24 16:23 zero

  7. Under OSF/1, you need ~ftp/etc/sia/siainitgood.

  8. Under DEC Ultrix, you need ~ftp/etc/svc.conf

  9. NeXT systems: You need a copy of /usr/shlib/libsys_s.B.shlib in ~ftp/usr/shlib/libsys_s.B.shlib. Make sure that ~ftp/usr, ~ftp/usr/shlib are mode 0555 (dr-xr-xr-x) and ~ftp/usr/shlib/libsys_s.B.shlib is mode 0555 (-r-xr-xr-x).

  10. If you are using this system under Linux, you will get lots of warnings about problems when you compile - Just ignore them...
    You will probably need at least libc4.3.3 and gcc2.3.3 to compile this..
    You will also get (for now at least) errors (sometimes) when you do an ls or dir command.. This is a bug in the current Linux libraries..
    It will say :-
    425 Can not build Data Connection. Transport Endpoint Already Connected. (Or something like that...) Just retype the ls/dir command until it works all other commands work fine..

  11. Certains files need to be inside the anonymous ftp hierarchy.
    They are all referenced after the chroot(~ftp):
    all messages (deny, welcome, etc.)

  12. In order for shutdown to work properly for real, guest, and anonymous users -- you must create a link.

    For example... if shutdown is defined to be /etc/shutmsg:
    root# ln -s ~ftp/etc/shutmsg /etc/shutmsg

    That way, when ftpshut creates the shutdown message, it will be within the real user space and the anonymous user space.

  13. I would like to publically thank all the beta-testers that I have had for this release. They are (in alphabetical order):

   (Amos Shapira)
   (UUNET Technologies)
   (Bart Muyzer)
   (Dave Datta)
            eduard.vopicka@vse.cs (Eduard Vopicka)
   (Michael Graff)
   (Guy Helmer)
   (John Ladwig)
   (Mike J. O'Connor)
   (Mike Regoli)
   (Steve Nuchia)

  14. There are two mailing lists available that discuss the server. They are wu-ftpd and wu-ftpd-announce. To subscribe to either send a "subscribe " message to

  15. If you use the server (and like it!) -- send me a note. Since this project is funded from a grant, it would be nice to show the superiors how widely used it is. If you have really bizarre problems that you can not figure out, feel free to mail me and I will try to help. I warn you that response time may be a bit slow...
    But I will do my best to help.

Bryan D. O'Connor
Office of the Network Coordinator          
Washington University in Saint Louis